Instructions for Authors

The Journal of Arts Entrepreneurship Education uses the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style as its style guide. Chicago style stipulates use of footnotes and a bibliography, and no author/date or in-text citations of any kind. Note that footnote numbers occur after a sentence. If there are multiple sources in a single footnote, use a semicolon to separate sources.

Note also that the Oxford comma is not used (i.e., “…this, and that…” is not the style of the Journal; “…this and that…” is the correct style).

Book

Footnote Entry

Ellen Dissanayake, Homo Aestheticus (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995), 122-123.

Bibliography Entry

Dissanayake, Ellen. Homo Aestheticus. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995.

Book (Edition)

Footnote Entry

Stephen Spinelli and Robert J Adams, New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 10th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill Education, 2016), 34.

Bibliography Entry

Spinelli, Stephen and Robert J Adams. New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century. 10th edition. New York: McGraw Hill Education, 2016.

Article

Footnote Entry

Robert Baron, “Opportunity Recognition as Pattern Recognition: How Entrepreneurs ‘Connect the Dots’ to Identify New Business Opportunities,” Academy of Management 20, no.1 (2006): 115.

Bibliography Entry

Baron, Robert. “Opportunity Recognition as Pattern Recognition: How Entrepreneurs ‘Connect the Dots’ to Identify New Business Opportunities.” Academy of Management 20, no.1 (2006): 104-119.

Part of an edited collection

Footnote Entry

Glenn R. Carroll and Olga M. Khessina, “The Ecology of Entrepreneurship,” in Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: Disciplinary Perspectives, ed. Sharon Alverez, Rajshree Agarwal and Olav Sorenson (Boston: Springer, 2005), 167-200.

Bibliography Entry

Carroll, Glenn R. and Olga M. Khessina. “The Ecology of Entrepreneurship,” in Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: Disciplinary Perspectives. Edited by Sharon Alverez, Rajshree Agarwal and Olav Sorenson, 167-200. Boston: Springer, 2005.

Internet Sources

Footnote Entry

“National Endowment for the Arts Appropriations History,” National Endowment for the Arts, accessed July 27, 2019, https://www.arts.gov/open-government/national-endowment-arts-appropriations-history.

Bibliography Entry

National Endowment for the Arts. “National Endowment for the Arts Appropriations History.” Accessed July 27, 2019. https://www.arts.gov/open-government/national-endowment-arts-appropriations-history.

Internet-based, Academic Journal

Footnote Entry

Jacki Apple, “The State of Performance Art 2019,” PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art 42, no. 2 (2020): 34-40, https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/pajj_a_00518.

Bibliography Entry

Ape, Jacki. “The State of Performance Art 2019.”  PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art 42, no. 2 (2020): 34-40. https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/pajj_a_00518.

Citing Multiple Sources in a Single Footnote

Format each source as you typically would for a footnote but use a semicolon to separate sources. Each source is cited in the bibliography separately. The 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style stipulates that the rule for order of entries in footnotes that support a specific point is ascending according to date. The 17th edition does not seem to address this; therefore, authors should use the rule from the 15th edition (i.e., oldest first or ascending order). Regarding consecutive citations of the same author: In footnotes, use “Ibid.”; in bibliographies, use seven (7) underlines in place of the author’s name

Footnote Entry

Robert Baron, “Opportunity Recognition as Pattern Recognition: How Entrepreneurs ‘Connect the Dots’ to Identify New Business Opportunities,” Academy of Management 20, no.1 (2006): 104-119; Stephen Spinelli and Robert J Adams, New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 10th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill Education, 2016), 34.

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